Table of Contents and Index

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Contents

Foreword 11

Preface 13

1 INTRODUCTION TO SCREENING AND ASSESSMENT

The Practice of Movement Screening and Assessment 17 | Body Parts Versus Movement Patterns 18 | The Movement Versus Motion Paradox 19 | Movement is Our Business 21 | Systems Versus Programs 22 | Movement Screening Models 23 | Function Versus Anatomy 25 | Dysfunction, Pain and Rehabilitation 26 | The FMS History 28 | Recognizing Patterns 30 | The Five Basic Principles 31 | Overview of the Functional Movement System Goals 32

2 ANATOMICAL SCIENCE VERSUS FUNCTIONAL SCIENCE

Training Stabilizers Versus Training Movers 37 | Muscle Function, Movement and Sensation 38 | Joints and Ligaments 38 | The Fascial Matrix 39 | The Breath 40 | The Neuromuscular Network 41| Authentic Movement 43 | The Movement Matrix 44 | Dissection and Reconstruction 45 | Movement Deficiency and Dysfunction 47 | Developmental Movement Dysfunction 47 | Traumatic Movement Dysfunction 47 | Acquired Movement Dysfunction 48 | Pain Changes Everything 50

3 UNDERSTANDING MOVEMENT

Movement Knowledge Versus Exercise Knowledge 52 | The Two Functional Movement Systems 52 | Basic Movement Before Specific 55 | Understanding Perspectives Activities, Exercises and Athletics 56 | Difficulty Versus Challenge 57 | A Professional Crossroads 57 | Diseases, Injuries and Ailments 58 | Thin-Slicing 59 | A Glance at Screening, Testing and Assessment 59 | Overview of the Systems 61 | Movement Assessment 61 | Outline of the Functional Movement System 61 | Functional Movement Screen: FMS 61 | The Clinical System: Selective Functional Movement Assessment: SFMA 62 | Creating Functional Movement Standards 63

4 MOVEMENT SCREENING

The Effect of Injury on Movement 68 | Where Does a Movement Screen Belong? 69 | Movement Screen Outcomes 70 | Pre-Participation and Performance Reviews 71

5 FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SYSTEMS AND MOVEMENT PATTERNS 73

FMS Overview 74 | SFMA Top-Tier Assessments 75 | SFMA Breakouts 76 | The Concept of Screening 79 | Functional Movement Screen Criteria 80 | The FMS Design 80 | The Four Basic Filters 81 | Pain Versus Discomfort during Screening 84 | Scoring the FMS Results Hierarchy 85

6 FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN DESCRIPTIONS 87

The FMS Test List 88 | The FMS Scoring Sheet 89 | Deep Squat Movement Pattern 90 | Hurdle Step Movement Pattern 92 | Inline Lunge Movement Pattern 94 | Shoulder Mobility Reaching Movement Pattern 96 | Clearing Exam 96 | Active Straight-Leg Raise Movement Pattern 98 | Trunk Stability Pushup Movement Pattern 100 | Clearing Exam 100 | Rotary Stability Movement Pattern 102 | Clearing Exam 102 | Functional Movement Screen Conclusion 104 | Increased Activity Risk 104 | Movement Screen Modifications 105 | Modification Hierarchy 106

7 SFMA INTRODUCTION AND TOP-TIER TESTS

Considering Patterns of Movement Clinically 107 | The SFMA Characteristics 110 | Mapping Movement Patterns 110 | SFMA Criteria 111 | Functional and Non-Painful (FN) 111 | Functional and Painful (FP) 112 | Dysfunctional and Painful (DP) 112 | Dysfunctional and Non-Painful (DN) 113 | The SFMA Top-Tier Tests 114 | Assessment Results Hierarchy 114 | The SFMA Versus the FMS 116 | Pain and Motor Control 117 | Clinical Musculoskeletal Evaluation 118 | Levels of Information 118 | Evaluation Hierarchy 119 | Functional Patterns and Postures 120 | Provocation of Symptoms 122 | The SFMA Top-Tier Assessments 123 | Cervical Spine Assessment 123 | Upper Extremity Movement Pattern Assessments 124 | Multi-Segmental Flexion Assessment 126 | Multi-Segmental Extension Assessment 126 | Multi-Segmental Rotation Assessment 127 | Single-Leg Stance Assessment 127 | Overhead Deep Squat Assessment 128 | Balancing Movement and Pain Information 129

8 SFMA ASSESSMENT BREAKOUT DESCRIPTIONS AND FLOWCHARTS

Mobility Problems 134 | Stability Problems 134 | Flowcharts 135 | The SFMA Breakouts 135 | Cervical Spine Movement Pattern Breakouts 138 | Upper Extremity Pattern Breakouts 142 | Multi-Segmental Flexion Breakouts 145 | Multi-Segmental Extension Breakouts 152 | Lower Body Extension Breakouts 156 | Upper Body Extension Breakouts 160 | Multi-Segmental Rotation Breakouts 166 | Hip Rotation Breakouts 168 | Tibial Rotation Breakouts 173 | Single-Leg Stance Breakouts 176 | Vestibular and Core Breakouts 176 | Ankle Breakouts 179 | Overhead Deep Squat Breakouts 183 | Rolling Breakouts 187

9 ANALYZING THE MOVEMENTS IN SCREENS AND ASSESSMENTS

The Deep Squat 191 | Mistakes on Screening the Squat 193 | Symmetry Versus Asymmetry 194 | Stick to the Screen 194 | Stability and Mobility in the Deep Squat 196 | Squatting: The Pattern and the Exercise 197 | Whole Pattern Training 198 | Reverse Patterning the Deep Squat 199 | Reactive Neuromuscular Training for the Deep Squat 200 | The Deep Squat Shadow 201 | The Hurdle Step and Single-Leg Stance 201 | Exercising the Patterns 203 | Compensations in the Hurdle Step and Single-Leg Stance 204 | Runners and the Single-Leg Stance 205 | The Inline Lunge 206 | Pattern-Specific Core Stability 206 | The Lunge as a Movement Pattern 207 | Core Stabilization in the Lunge 208 | Shoulder Mobility Reaching Test 209 | Complementary Movements in Shoulder Mobility 209 | Coaching or Retraining the Natural Pattern 210 | The Active Straight-Leg Raise 211 | The Hips and the Active Leg Raise 211 | Corrective Progress 212 | Mobility before Stability 212 | The Pushup 213 | Mastering Pushing Symmetry 214 | Rotary Stability 214 | Rolling Patterns 215

10 UNDERSTANDING CORRECTIVE STRATEGIES

Common Corrective Exercise Mistakes 217 | Movement Alchemy 218 | Screen and Assessment Correctness 218 | Beginning with Exercise Basics 219 | The Performance Pyramid 220 | Over-Powered Performance Pyramid 222 | Under-Powered Performance Pyramid 222 | Under-Skilled Performance Pyramid 222 | Optimum Performance Pyramid 222 | Using the Performance Pyramids 225 | Short-Term Response Versus Long-Term Adaptation 225 | Corrective Exercise Progressions 226 | Increasing Difficulty 226 | Asking the Right Questions 227 | What Exercises to Remove from the Program 228 | Corrective Exercise is Supplemental 229 | Exercises: Correct Versus Corrective 229 | Correct Exercise 230 | Self-Limiting Exercise 231 | Self-Limiting Activities 233 | Challenging Versus Difficult 234 | The Goals of Corrective Exercise 234

11 DEVELOPING CORRECTIVE STRATEGIES

Tension and Tone 237 | Dysfunctional Patterns 238 | The FMS and Corrective Exercise 239 | The SFMA and Corrective Exercise 241 | Corrective Exercise and Functional Exercise 242 | Putting the Function in Functional Exercise 243 | Conditioning Exercise, Corrective Exercise and Movement Prep 244 | Conditioning Exercise 244 | Corrective Exercise 245 | Movement Preparation 245 | Skill Training, Conditioning and Corrective Exercise 245 | Movement Preparation Versus Movement Correction 247 | FMS Corrective Prioritization 248 | SFMA Corrective Prioritization 248 | Developing a Corrective Toolbox 249

12 BUILDING THE CORRECTIVE FRAMEWORK

The Six Ps of Corrective Exercise 251 | Pain 251 | Purpose 252 | Posture 252 | Position 253 | Pattern 254 | Plan 254 | Learning Movement or Doing Movement 256 | Special Considerations and Populations 257 | Just Do It 258 | Movement Psychology Theory 259 | Screening the Breath 260

13 MOVEMENT PATTERN CORRECTIONS

Basic Mobility Corrections 263 | Passive & Mobility Corrections 265 | Assistive Mobility Corrections 266 | Basic Stability, Motor Control Corrections 267 | Postures for Stability Corrective Exercise 270 | Rolling 270 | FMS Rolling 271 | SFMA Rolling 272 | Static and Dynamic Stabilization Corrections 273 | Transitional Posture and Static Stability 274 | Dynamic Stability Corrections 276 | Summary of Stability Corrections 278

14 ADVANCED CORRECTIVE STRATEGIES

Movement Learning Considerations 281 | The Manageable Mistake Zone 282 | A Corrective Experience Case Study 283 | The Paranoid System and the Clueless System 286 | Corrective System Overview 288 | Mobility Framework 288 | Stability Framework 289 | The Deadlifting Experience 290 | Training Wheels 291 | Advanced Corrective Strategies 292 | Movement Pattern Retraining 292 | Reverse Patterning (RP) 292 | Reactive Neuromuscular Training (RNT) 294 | Conscious Loading (CL) 296 | Resisted Exercise (RE) 301 | Movement Learning 302

15 IN CONCLUSION

A Chance at Authentic Movement 305 | The Business of Exercise and Rehabilitation 307 | Principles Versus Methods 308 | If We Build It, They Will Come 309 | Functional Movement System Principles 310 | Technical Confidence Versus Systematic Authority 313 | The Amazing Movement-Learning Brain 314 | The Dysfunctional Movement-Learning Brain 315 | The Wisdom of Our Ancestors 316

APPENDICES

1 THE JOINT-BY-JOINT CONCEPT

2 EXPANDING ON THE JOINT-BY-JOINT APPROACH

3 SFMA SCORE SHEETS AND FLOWCHARTS

4 BREATHING

5 HEART RATE VARIABILITY

6 THE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SYSTEMS TEAM

7 EARLY PERSPECTIVES AND THE JUMP STUDY

8 CORE TESTING AND FUNCTIONAL GONIOMETRY

9 FMS SCORING CRITERIA

10 VERBAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN

11 EXAMPLE OF A CONVENTIONAL DEEP SQUAT EVALUATION PROCESS

12 PATIENT SELF-EVALUATION FORMS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

REFERENCES

INDEX

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